Millions, possibly billions, of people have come to believe what is essentially a conspiracy theory, generating fear and misunderstanding about a whole class of technologies on an unprecedentedly global scale. This matters enormously because these technologies — in particular the various uses of molecular biology to enhance plant breeding potential — are clearly some of our most important tools for addressing food security and future environmental change. This is what has happened with the GMOs food scare in Europe, Africa and many other parts of the world. Allowing anti-GMO activists to dictate policymaking on biotechnology is like putting homeopaths in charge of the health service, or asking anti-vaccine campaigners to take the lead in eradicating polio.
See Article History Alternative Title: In severe epidemicscrop loss may be as high as 75 percent, and millions of hectares of rice are infected annually.
The disease was first observed in —85 in KyushuJapanand the causal agent, the bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae also referred to as Xoowas identified inat that time having been named Bacillus oryzae.
Thriving in warm, humid environmentsbacterial blight has been observed in rice-growing regions of Asiathe western coast of Africa, Australia, Latin Americaand the Caribbean.
Although not commonly found in the United States, a bacterial strain related to Xoo has been listed as an agricultural select agent by the U. Department of Agriculturea designation that places it under strict regulations.
Bacterial blight first becomes evident as water-soaked streaks that spread from the leaf tips and margins, becoming larger and eventually releasing a milky ooze that dries into yellow droplets. Characteristic grayish white lesions then appear on the leaves, signaling the late stages of infection, when leaves dry out and die.
In seedlings, the leaves dry out and wilta syndrome known as kresek. Infected seedlings usually are killed by bacterial blight within two to three weeks of being infected; adult plants may survive, though rice yield and quality are diminished.
Since rice paddies are flooded throughout most of the growing seasonXoo may easily spread among crops; bacteria travel through the water from infected plants to the roots and leaves of neighbouring rice plants. Wind and water may also help spread Xoo bacteria to other crops and rice paddies.
Various mechanisms of disease, including quorum sensing and biofilm formation, have been observed in rice bacterial blight and Xoo. In addition to rice, Xoo may infect other plantssuch as rice cut-grass Leersia oryzoidesChinese sprangletop Leptochloa chinensisand common grasses and weeds.
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|General Information on Pest and Damage||Symptoms[ edit ] Symptoms appear on the leaves of young plants as pale-green to grey-green, water-soaked streaks near the leaf tip and margins. These lesions coalesce and become yellowish-white with wavy edges.|
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In nongrowing seasons, Xoo may survive in rice seeds, straw, other living hosts, water, or, for brief periods, soil.
Methods of controlling rice bacterial blight are limited in effectiveness. Chemical control has been largely ineffective in minimizing bacterial blight because of safety concerns, practicality, and bacterial resistance.
Biological control methods, which rely on the use of bacterial antagonists of pathogens disease-causing organismscan reduce bacterial blight, though their use has been limited.
The most-common method of defending against rice bacterial blight is the cultivation of rice varieties with genes that confer resistance to Xoo infection. Over 30 resistance genestermed Xa1 to Xa33, have been identified in rice plants, and some, such as Xa21, have been integrated into the genomes of commercial rice strains.
These resistant rice varieties have been largely successful, dramatically reducing yield losses in many rice-producing countries.Internal. The phylogenetic tree, based on Papasotiropoulos and Kim , with additions from Ortiz-Rivas and Martinez-Torres , shows the internal phylogeny of the Aphididae..
It has been suggested that the phylogeny of the aphid groups might be revealed by examining the phylogeny of their bacterial endosymbionts, especially the obligate endosymbiont Buchnera. Recovery Plan for Xanthomonas oryzae Causing Bacterial Blight and Bacterial Leaf Streak of Rice June 4, (BLS) are the two most important bacterial diseases of rice worldwide.
The diseases are caused by two pathovars of Xanthomonas oryzae: X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) that causes BB, and X. oryzae pv. Archives and past articles from the Philadelphia Inquirer, Philadelphia Daily News, and regardbouddhiste.com Identification of bacterial leaf blight resistance genes in wild rice of eastern India Anil Kumar SINGH 1, *, Ekta DHARMRAJ 1, Rohini NAYAK 1, Pawan Kumar SINGH 1, Nagendra Kumar SINGH 2 1 Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu .
Symptomatology of Bacterial Leaf Blight Disease of Rice: Bacterial blight has three significant symptoms viz. leaf blight, pale yellow and kresek. The leaf blight phase symptoms develop mostly on leaf blades, leaf sheaths and sometimes on grains. Plant Breeding Graduate Thesis Library.
Graduates. Name Thesis/Dissertation Title Advisor Exploring and Characterizing Major Resistance Genes for Northern Leaf Blight in Maize. R. Nelson. Graduate Study.
Cloning and characterization of the rice bacterial blight disease resistance gene XA5. S. McCouch. Postdoctoral research.