Copyright Fresh Air. To see more, visit Fresh Air. Novelist Juan Gabriel Vasquez grew up in Bogota, Colombia, when drug lord Pablo Escobar had declared war on the country, setting off car bombs in the capital and terrorizing its citizens.
Criminal Justice System Referrals to Treatment "Inthe criminal justice system was the largest single source of referrals to the substance abuse treatment system, comprising 37 percent of all admissions in the Treatment Episode Data Set TEDS approximatelyof the 1.
Moreover, the majority of these referrals were from parole and probation offices 44 percent of criminal justice admissions where detailed criminal justice source information is known.
Augustp. Treatment Admissions through Criminal Justice System Referral, by Substance "Five primary substances of abuse accounted for 96 percent of all substance abuse treatment admissions in Criminal justice system referral admissions were more likely than all other referral admissions to report primary alcohol abuse, primary marijuana abuse, and primary methamphetamine abuse and less likely to report primary opiate abuse.
The high rate of criminal justice system referral admissions younger than 18 years old may have contributed significantly to the high rate of admissions with marijuana as a primary substance of abuse.
Marijuana-Involved Admissions to Treatment in the US, "An admission [to treatment] was considered marijuana-involved if marijuana was reported as a primary, secondary, or tertiary substance.
In43 percent of all adolescent admissions were marijuana-involved admissions referred to treatment by the criminal justice system, and 39 percent were marijuana involved but referred by other sources.
Between andthe proportion referred by the criminal justice system increased to 45 percent while the proportion referred by other sources decreased to 37 percent.
The proportions started to converge in Admissions not involving marijuana that were referred from other sources were fairly stable, at between 9 and 11 percent of adolescent admissions.
Non-Hispanic Blacks made up 14 percent 9 percent were males and 5 percent were females.
Admissions of Puerto Rican origin made up 7 percent of primary heroin admissions 6 percent were males and 1 percent were females [Table 2.
See Chapter 3 for additional data on heroin admissions. Daily heroin use was reported by 63 percent of primary heroin admissions [Table 2. These drugs include methadone, buprenorphine, codeine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, meperidine, morphine, opium, oxycodone, pentazocine, propoxyphene, tramadol, and any other drug with morphine-like effects.
Poly-Drug Users In Treatment "While it is generally assumed that polydrug use is a hard-to-treat condition, results from large treatment outcome studies in Europe show significant reductions in multiple drug use among highly problematic users.
Nevertheless, managing the care of problem polydrug users requires long-term treatment planning with attention to individual needs and multidisciplinary teams working together with flexible and sometimes innovative treatment options.
Patterns and Responses" Lisboa, Portugal:The illegal drug trade helped finance armed actors on all sides in Colombia's civil war. Now, it could complicate ongoing efforts to make peace.
This article first appeared on Colombia Reports. The US Civil War most certainly had armies marching on each other, unless you are not up to speed on the history of the US Civil War. Both sides grew in numbers and sides were taken.
They lost before, and they would lose again, by a much larger margin. Although there is a serious black market violence problem in the U.S., it pales in comparison to the countries that are source and transshipment points of illegal drugs.
For example, there were over 29, murders in Mexico last year with roughly 33–50 percent being related to the drug war. Pastrana launches controversial and unpopular Plan Colombia, with the aid of the USA, to put to a halt the flow of cocaine and heroine entering the USA over the Mexican border and to fight drug trafficking and rebels that benefit form the trade.
But human rights leaders say the worst problem Colombia faces is longstanding, increasing collusion between units of the country's armed forces and paramilitary organizations. With Colombia facing heightened scrutiny over human rights violations, the armed forces are acting to keep their record clean - but in some cases by simply contracting.
FARC (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia): The Farc is the oldest and largest group among Colombia's left-wing rebels and is one of the world's richest guerrilla armies.
The group's roots can be traced back to the Liberal guerrilla bands of La Violencia - the civil war between the Liberal and Conservative parties that raged from until