It then briefly describes several other important theories of crime, most of which represent elaborations of these three theories.
The guiding principle in this entry is that psychological theories focus especially on the influence of individual and family factors on offending. Psychological theories are usually developmental, attempting to explain the development of offending from childhood to adulthood, and hence based on longitudinal studies that follow up individuals over time.
The emphasis of such theories is on continuity rather than discontinuity from childhood to adulthood.
A common assumption is that the ordering of individuals on an underlying construct such as criminal potential is relatively constant over time. Psychologists view offending as a type of behavior that is similar in many respects to other types of antisocial behavior.
Hence, the theories, methods, and knowledge of other types of antisocial behavior can be applied to the study of crime. Lee Robins popularized the theory that offending is one element of a larger syndrome of antisocial behavior, including heavy drinking, drug-taking, reckless driving, educational problems, employment problems, difficulties in relationships, and so on.
This is the basis of the psychiatric classification of antisocial personality disorder. Robins also argued that antisocial personality is obvious early in life and that it tends to persist from childhood to adulthood, with different behavioral manifestations.
Typically, psychological theories may include motivational, inhibiting, decision-making, and learning processes Farrington, The most common motivational idea is that people and especially children are naturally hedonistic and selfish, seeking pleasure and avoiding pain, and hence that children are naturally antisocial.
Another classic idea is that people are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal; if their level falls below the optimum, they will try to increase it, whereas if it is above the optimum they will try to decrease it. Thus, someone who is bored might seek excitement.
Since offending is viewed as essentially natural, most psychological theories attempt to explain the development of mechanisms that inhibit offending such as the conscience. The conscience is often assumed to arise in a conditioning process depending on the association between antisocial behavior and the anxiety created by parental punishment or in a learning process where the probability of behavior increases or decreases according to parental rewards or punishments.
Psychological theories often include cognitive thinking or decisionmaking processes that explain why people choose to offend in a particular situation. A common assumption is that offending is essentially rational, and that people will offend if they think that the expected benefits will outweigh the expected costs.
Generally, psychologists are committed to the scientific study of human behavior, with its emphasis on theories that can be tested and falsified using empirical, quantitative data, controlled experiments, systematic observation, valid and reliable measures, replications of empirical results, and so on.
Much research in recent years has been carried out within the risk factor paradigm Farrington,focusing on the extent to which risk factors such as impulsiveness or poor parental supervision predict offending.
This research also investigates possible causal mechanisms or processes that intervene between and explain the link between risk factors and crime.
The following sections discuss the most important categories of risk factors that influence crime: The most important personality factor in relation to crime is impulsiveness, while the most influential theory of the link between personality and crime is that put forward by Hans Eysenck.
A significant theory focusing on impulsiveness was propounded by James Q. Wilson and Richard Herrnstein.
The section also examines cognitive theories, which emphasize thinking, reasoning, and decision-making processes. Lastly, this entry describes a more comprehensive theory than those discussed under family and individual influences.
The more comprehensive theory includes motivational, inhibiting, decision-making, and learning processes. Family influences Broken homes and attachment theories.
Psychologists have approached broken homes and attachment theories from a broad range of perspectives. Psychoanalytic theories emphasized the importance of loving relationships and attachment between children and their parents.crime are not social issues[ high unemployment, bad schools] but deeply ingrained features of the human personality and its early experiences.
Low intelligence, an impulsive personality, and a lack of empathy for other. CRIME CAUSATION: SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES This entry focuses on the three major sociological theories of crime and delinquency: strain, social learning, and control theories. It then briefly describes several other important theories of crime, most of which represent elaborations of these three theories.
Which of the following is not one of the major principles of sociological theories of crime causation It is possible to predict the specific behavior of an individual member of a given group Social _________ refers to institutional arrangements with and societies institutions?
Jul 21, · Traditional sociological theories proposed that crimes was a result of anomie, a term meaning “normlessness” or a feeling of a lack of social norms, a lack of being connected to society.
The term was made popular by Émile Durkheim () who originally used the term to explain regardbouddhiste.coms: 4. Prominent theories of crime causation are strain theory, in which people commit crimes to get relief from strain or stress, and control theory, which claims that others force people to do crimes.
The social learning theory is the idea that people learn to do crimes through their association with others. Theories of Crime Causation Crime is inevitable and will never be eradicated. Sociologist such as Travis Hirschi and Michael Gottfredson claim that theories such as social bond theory and self-control theory can help society understand the causation of crimes.