Design a psychology experiment

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Design a psychology experiment

Saul McLeodupdated Experimental design refers to how participants are allocated to the different conditions or IV levels in an experiment.

Probably the commonest way to design an experiment in psychology is to divide the participants into two groups, the experimental group, and the control group, and then introduce a change to the experimental group and not the control group. For example, if there are 10 participants, will all 10 participants take part in both conditions e.

Three types of experimental designs are commonly used: This type of design is also known as between groups. Different participants are used in each condition of the independent variable.

Design a psychology experiment

This means that each condition of the experiment includes a different group of participants. This should be done by random allocation, which ensures that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to one group or the other.

If X, then Y

Independent measures involve using two separate groups of participants; one in each condition. More people are needed than with the repeated measures design i. Avoids order effects such as practice or fatigue as people participate in one condition only.

If a person is involved in several conditions, they may become bored, tired and fed up by the time they come to the second condition, or becoming wise to the requirements of the experiment! Differences between participants in the groups may affect results, for example; variations in age, gender or social background.

These differences are known as participant variables i. After the participants have been recruited, they should be randomly assigned to their groups.

This should ensure the groups are similar, on average reducing participant variables. This type of design is also known as within groups.

The same participants take part in each condition of the independent variable. This means that each condition of the experiment includes the same group of participants. As the same participants are used in each condition, participant variables i.

Experimental Design | Simply Psychology

There may be order effects. Performance in the second condition may be better because the participants know what to do i.

Or their performance might be worse in the second condition because they are tired i. This limitation can be controlled using counterbalancing. Fewer people are needed as they take part in all conditions i. To combat order effects the researcher counter balances the order of the conditions for the participants.

Alternating the order in which participants perform in different conditions of an experiment.

OUTLINE OF AN EXPERIMENT

However, a researcher can control for order effects using counterbalancing. The sample would split into two groups experimental A and control B. Although order effects occur for each participant, because they occur equally in both groups, they balance each other out in the results.

Each condition uses different but similar participants. An effort is made to match the participants in each condition in terms of any important characteristic which might affect performance, e.

One member of each matched pair must be randomly assigned to the experimental group and the other to the control group. Reduces participant variables because the researcher has tried to pair up the participants so that each condition has people with similar abilities and characteristics.

Very time-consuming trying to find closely matched pairs. Avoids order effects, and so counterbalancing is not necessary. Impossible to match people exactly, unless identical twins!Experimental psychology refers to work done by those who apply experimental methods to This type of design is particularly useful because it can help to outline a functional relationship between the independent and dependent variables.

Two widely cited experiments in social psychology experiment are the Stanford prison experiment. Probably the commonest way to design an experiment in psychology is to divide the participants into two groups, the experimental group and the control group, and then introduce a change to the experimental group and not the control group.

The researcher must decide how Author: Saul Mcleod. Introduction to Statistics for Psychology and Quantitative Methods for Human Sciences Jonathan Marchini.

study/experiment that aims to provide data to help test our hypothesis Collect Data Examine the results of the statistical test Study Design (How can we design most information about our hypothesis) our study to get the about a given.

Design a psychology experiment

Experimental design is a fairly complex subject in its own right. I've been discussing the simplest of experimental designs -- a two-group program versus comparison group design. But there are lots of experimental design variations that attempt to accomplish different things or solve different problems.

Situations that may create appropriate circumstances for a natural experiment include policy changes, weather events, and natural disasters. Natural experiments are used most commonly in the fields of epidemiology, political science, psychology, and social science.

Social psychology experiments can explain how thoughts, feelings and behaviors are influenced by the presence of others. Sherif's classic social psychology experiment named Robbers Cave Experiment dealt with in-group relations, This is one of the hardest inbuilt biases to eliminate or factor into the design..

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