Periodontal Disease Essay Pages: However, what is disturbing is that this disease is becoming more prevalent in our modern 'developed' societies. Albandar, Brunelle and Kingman, Even more disturbing is the fact that the link between periodontal disease and other illnesses are often not detected or given sufficient attention. There is little doubt that a long-term pervasive gum infection leading to periodontitis can affect the immune system and general health.
Specializations[ edit ] All cardiologists study the disorders of the heart, but the study of adult and child heart disorders are through different training pathways. Therefore, an adult cardiologist often simply called "cardiologist" is inadequately trained to take care of children, and pediatric cardiologists are not trained to take care of adult heart disease.
The surgical aspects are not included in cardiology and are in the domain of cardiothoracic surgery. For example, coronary artery bypass surgery CABGcardiopulmonary bypass and valve replacement are surgical procedures performed by surgeons, not cardiologists. However the insertion of stents and pacemakers are performed by cardiologists Adult cardiology[ edit ] Cardiology is a specialty of internal medicine.
To be a cardiologist in the United Statesa three-year residency in internal medicine is followed by a three-year fellowship in cardiology.
It is possible to specialize further in a sub-specialty. Recognized sub-specialties in the United States by the ACGME are cardiac electrophysiologyechocardiographyinterventional cardiologyand nuclear cardiology.
Cardiac electrophysiology Cardiac electrophysiology is the science of elucidating, diagnosing, and treating the electrical activities of the heart. The term is usually used to describe studies of such phenomena by invasive intracardiac catheter recording of spontaneous activity as well as of cardiac responses to programmed electrical stimulation PES.
These studies are performed to assess complex arrhythmiaselucidate symptoms, evaluate abnormal electrocardiogramsassess risk of developing arrhythmias in the future, and design treatment. These procedures increasingly include therapeutic methods typically radiofrequency ablationor cryoablation in addition to diagnostic and prognostic procedures.
Other therapeutic modalities employed in this field include antiarrhythmic drug therapy and implantation of pacemakers and automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators AICD.
Sometimes a series of EPS drug trials must be conducted to enable the cardiologist to select the one regimen for long-term treatment that best prevents or slows the development of VT or VF following PES.
Such studies may also be conducted in the presence of a newly implanted or newly replaced cardiac pacemaker or AICD. Clinical cardiac electrophysiology Clinical cardiac electrophysiology is a branch of the medical specialty of cardiology and is concerned with the study and treatment of rhythm disorders of the heart.
Cardiologists with expertise in this area are usually referred to as electrophysiologists. Electrophysiologists are trained in the mechanism, function, and performance of the electrical activities of the heart. Electrophysiologists work closely with other cardiologists and cardiac surgeons to assist or guide therapy for heart rhythm disturbances arrhythmias.
They are trained to perform interventional and surgical procedures to treat cardiac arrhythmia. The training required to become an electrophysiologist is long and requires 7 to 8 years after medical school in the U.
Three years of internal medicine residency, three years of Clinical Cardiology fellowship, and one to two in most instances years of clinical cardiac electrophysiology. Cardiogeriatrics Cardiogeriatrics or geriatric cardiology is the branch of cardiology and geriatric medicine that deals with the cardiovascular disorders in elderly people.
Cardiac disorders such as coronary heart disease including myocardial infarction, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias as atrial fibrillation and others are common and are a major cause of mortality in elderly people.
Vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis and peripheral arterial disease cause significant morbidity and mortality in aged people. Echocardiography Echocardiography uses standard two-dimensional, three-dimensional, and Doppler ultrasound to create images of the heart.
Echocardiography has become routinely used in the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of patients with any suspected or known heart diseases. It is one of the most widely used diagnostic tests in cardiology. It can provide a wealth of helpful information, including the size and shape of the heart internal chamber size quantificationpumping capacity, and the location and extent of any tissue damage.
An echocardiogram can also give physicians other estimates of heart function, such as a calculation of the cardiac output, ejection fraction, and diastolic function how well the heart relaxes.
Echocardiography can help detect cardiomyopathies, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and many others. The use of stress echocardiography may also help determine whether any chest pain or associated symptoms are related to heart disease.
The biggest advantage to echocardiography is that it is not invasive does not involve breaking the skin or entering body cavities and has no known risks or side effects. Interventional cardiology Interventional cardiology is a branch of cardiology that deals specifically with the catheter based treatment of structural heart diseases.
A large number of procedures can be performed on the heart by catheterization. This most commonly involves the insertion of a sheath into the femoral artery but, in practice, any large peripheral artery or vein and cannulating the heart under X-ray visualization most commonly Fluoroscopy.
The main advantages of using the interventional cardiology or radiology approach are the avoidance of the scars and pain, and long post-operative recovery.
Additionally, interventional cardiology procedure of primary angioplasty is now the gold standard of care for an acute Myocardial infarction.Cardiovascular disease is a health condition that affects the blood vessels and heart.
This includes stroke (brain attack), coronary heart disease, rheumatic heart disease (permanent heart valve damage from rheumatic fever) and hypertension (high blood pressure). Heart disease or Cardiovascular disease is an abnormal function of the heart or blood vessels.
It can cause an increase in risk for heart attack, heart failure, sudden death, stroke and cardiac rhythm problems, thus resulting in decreased quality of life and decreased life expectancy.
Introduction Cardiovascular disease refers to conditions that affect the heart or blood vessels. It describes conditions ranging from peripheral artery disease and high blood pressure to heart . The progressive condition which if left unchecked, uncontrolled, resistant to treatment leads to heart disease, heart attack, or stroke (Marsh, ) Showed next characters If you cannot find any suitable paper on our site, which happens very rarely, you can always order custom written paper which will be written from scratch by our.
Particular disease or condition you are describing In return, a patient with this complication normally has cardiovascular attacks which cause the heart not to facilitate the pumping of blood to other parts of the body.
Thus the patient can even be unconscious in this case. with over 10 years in the essay . Coronary heart disease is a serious condition caused by the build-up of fatty deposits within the walls of the vital arteries that supply blood to the heart. Coronary heart disease is the major cause of death in Western societies but to a large extent is preventable.